July 20, 2015

News and Analysis (7/20/15)

The Iran deal is not perfect, but critics need to remember that the alternative to a deal would most likely be worse:

And therefore, the EU will back the deal, hoping it will push the US Congress to do the same:

A newly opened Palestinian TV station has been ordered to shut down, and the Ministry of Culture frequently cracks down on Arab or Israel-critic media, “Israel’s liberal [newspaper] Haaretz daily [calling it]  ‘ugly’, ‘Stalinist'”:

While the analysis of what attracts people to terrorism may be accurate, it is not clear how Cameron will implement policies in a way that will not further alienate the Muslim community:

Playing on people’s fears from the Chattanooga shooting, presidential candidate Rand Paul calls for extra scrutiny of immigrants from predominantly Muslim countries …

… but no connection to any Islamic terrorist organizations have been found, and the recovery of the suspect’s diary reveals a picture of a man struggling with addiction and mental problems:

Daesh fighters are training young children how to behead, indoctrinating them with their disturbing interpretation of Islam; they have “given up” on the older generation, and now they “care about the new generation”:

A queer Muslimah knows well-enough that some “attempts at queering the Quran … feel like stretches, like playing with words” and she relies “instead, on my faith, on my practice. My trust in justice, in mercy”:

July 18, 2015

News and Analysis (7/18/15)

Muhammad Youssuf Abdulazeez spouted Muslim jargon, but his shooting spree in Chattanooga on Thursday violated Islamic teachings as indisputably as his arrest for driving under the influence last April:

In a world where crimes are made in the name of religion, Alon Goshen-Gottstein reminds us that religion actually can, and is supposed to, help us in our peaceful coexistence:

As Ramadan comes to an end, Christian Science Monitor rounds up the past month – from the difficulties of Chinese Muslims to fast to the American Christians who have fasted in solidarity with Muslims:

An Australian MP has announced he will attend a Reclaim Australia rally, where people previously have worn neo-Nazi regalia and anti-Islam banners …

… while in France, politicians along the whole spectrum oppose the suggestion to reform abandoned churches into mosques:

You don’t think Muslims are capable of irreverent humor? Dave Chappelle is back and a doorman gives fair warning to potential targets (including Chappelle’s fellow-Muslims):

A fatal Eid present from ISIS to their fellow-Muslims:

 

July 16, 2015

News and Analysis (7/16/15)

The US increases airstrikes in Afghanistan, impeding the possibility of peace talks between the Taliban and the Afghani government:

“[A]n ISIS video of hostages being beheaded is both an act of propaganda and is itself a fact…. [Y]ou don’t want to suppress the facts … [but] you don’t want to participate in advancing propaganda” — a frustrated former Google exec:

The Qur’an gives women get 1/3rd of the inheritance and men 2/3rds because men have financial responsibility. But Dahlia Eissa objects that we live in a world where men get both more inheritance and less financial responsibility:

The +972 Magazine says that IDF is tracking the use of words such as “demonstration” and “Al-Quds” on Facebook:

After criticism from rights groups, the law that would jail journalists that contradicted the government when reporting terrorism, will now “only” fine them $25000-65000:

“As a Muslim, my faith mandates that I stand up against injustice and that I should fear no one but God and I take this tenet of my faith very seriously;” only “when Black lives matter all lives will matter, including Muslim lives”:

WikiLeaks Cables revealed that Saudi Arabia has been trying to undermine Iran and “restrict the Iranian government in expanding its Shiite influence” throughout the region through checkbook diplomacy:

An educational cartoon series about what is important with Ramadan, making Ramadan an opportunity to take a “break from the negativity and sarcasm he often finds on social media and focus on the positive”:

July 15, 2015

News and Analysis (7/15/15)

“Obama spoke in a lawyerly tone, at times mocking opponents of the deal, including … Netanyahu, for offering no viable alternative. He dismissed critics’ objections one by one and even solicited others from journalists”:

With a nuclear deal with Iran negotiated, Ian Black assess the obstacles to further rapprochement with the U.S.:

A close relative saying that a group of British and South African tourists may have been detained on unspecified charges simply “because many of them had … Muslim names”

Are Americans warming up to Muslims? Only 60% of Americans would vote for a Muslim president; but Connecticut’s first Muslim mayor is “encouraged by an upward trajectory”:

The reason why the peace talks in Yemen are unsuccessful is because no one wants to stop fighting – and it’s hurting Yemen civilians:

And you thought fluoride was bad? A small Texas town is in a frenzy over the the threat of decaying Muslim corpses polluting their water supply …

… but Congress is no better; critics claim proposed legislation conflates “behaviors that are associated with religious practices and political activism”:

July 14, 2015

News and Analysis (7/14/15)

A nuclear deal with Iran has been reached and will now be voted on in Congress. The deal has stirred up heavy opposition from the Israeli government and Christian Zionist in Congress:

The reason Scotland’s Muslims are less likely to support extremism than their English counterparts seems to be because they are not as marginalized by the government:

… Meanwhile, Islamophobic laws along with deep socioeconomic problems within the Muslim community in Tajikistan leads to fear of radicalization:

A 23-year-old man with a history of mental problems has been arrested after FBI equipped him with weapons, bringing one’s thoughts to Trevor Aaronson’s TEDtalk on how the FBI is “creating terrorists”:

A video shows that the teen who was shot dead by Israeli military on July 3 was not posing a threat. This leads Israeli Human Rights group B’Tselem to question Israel’s ability to investigate its own military:

The Mecca live story on Snapchat generates positive reactions – “I’m ecstatic that Snapchat showcased this special and momentous occasion, because for the vast majority of the world’s Muslims, THIS is what Islam is all about!” – says Muslim scholar Yasir Qadhi:

Muslim women are “calling out” Muslim events with no women represented. “One of the most egregious and hilarious examples recently was a fundraiser for a social service organization to — wait for it — empower women!”:

“Plans by the Simon Wiesenthal Center, a U.S.-based Jewish organization, to open a museum adjacent to the site also angered Palestinians, who said the project violated its stated mission of promoting tolerance”:

July 13, 2015

“Islamic Chaplaincy and Animal Rights”

[This is the eleventh in a series of my notes on the International Institute of Islamic Thought conference on Islamic Law and Ethics held in Herndon, VA in June  2014. These notes are NOT a transcript, but a lightly edited presentation of  my perception of the discussion. The proceedings will be published by IIIT at a later time. Responsibility for any errors in the notes is mine alone. Names of participants (other than mine) in the general discussion have been omitted by request of the conference director.]

“Application of Maqasid al-Shari’ah in Islamic Chaplaincy”

Kamal Abu-Shamsieh, Graduate Theological Union.

All knowledge is a gift from God. I make the case for the reform of Islamic chaplaincy and a call for incorporation of maqâsid ash-shari`ah for the ethics of care of Muslim patients in the hospital. Understanding Islamic Chaplaincy claims there is no formal theory of pastoral care in Islam. In my 2012 research on the barriers to religious and spiritual care, I unearthed a number of intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to care in hospitals, a lack of knowledge about spiritual care: the description of chaplaincy duties, resources, and problems.  How do we identify Muslim patients? How do we deal with cultural issues? Is the treatment team ready to take care of all of its patients? What’s their relation to Muslims outside the hospital? There is no formal training in chaplaincy expect for some for the African-American community. 45% of patients said they were not visited by a chaplain and 75% didn’t know what a chaplain is. 93% would not call on an imam to visit them while they are hospitalized. Hospitals have been left to decide on their own as to spiritual care except for end of life cases where spiritual care is mandatory. At Stanford Hospital I am informed that about 1% of the patients are Muslim but when I comb the full list I find it the fraction expands dramatically.

Islamic chaplaincy is da`wa al-hâl (call to health). We want to refine the chaplaincy so they can provide individual care. It is a revival (ihya) of the Sunnah: “Those most beloved of God are those who bring the most benefit.” We offer guidance (huda) so people will achieve success in this life and the next. It is an interdisciplinary process. Western ethics mention four principles of biomedical ethics: justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, and autonomy. Freedom, reflection, intention and consequence are all built into the concept of autonomy. By maqâsid, the physician’s job is preservation of the life of the physician and the job of the chaplain is preservation of the dîn. Legal maxims provide the framework.

A “feeling wheel” guides me as to the questions to ask the patient. I am asked why don’t I invite non-Muslim patients to faith as the Prophet did. Considering the law of the land, we must see it from a different perspective. Proslytization in the hospital is prohibited. Most of the literature begins with the five pillars. These are important but irrelevant. None of our patients are fasting. Iyâdat al murîd (visiting the sick) is classified by Bukhari as Sunnah using the imperative form, as the Prophet’s saying “I was sick and you were not there.”

This is a human-divine relationship that is personal. I will show a video that makes the case that this is a personal endeavor that ought to be refined. 10% of what we deal with ibidât and 90% is mu`amalât. What can we take from our legal and ethical theories to provide compassion and mercy and to help and support patients for no purpose but to receive the pleasure of Allah. Is the theory of maqasid the right starting point? It is not just about making supplication, but about engaging with the patients, right down to their hearts. Are we just to make a social talk or shall we make it personal to empower the ummah? We have no formal theory, but we have examples. Khadijah is the first example when she ministered to the Prophet Muhammad when he was overwhelmed by the revelation. She listened without judgment. Unable to provide help, took him to an expert (facilitation). The Prophet passing the sahaba when they suffered from persecution enjoined sabr (patient perseverance), but we wonder what nonverbal communication did he make? Did he weep? Did he offer du`a (supplication)? We need to incorporate maqasid and `aqida (creed), the jurisprudence of the sick. The majority of Muslim patients today do not pray inside the hospital. Allah, swt, says, “Yastadûni astajiblakum” (Call on me and I will answer).

“Muslims, Animals, and Modernity: A Triangle of an Unhappy Love”

Sarra Tlili, University of Florida.

We now try to widen the scope of compassion to include more creatures. I highlight the deterioration of Muslim’s feelings towards animals. Factory farming has become common in Muslim countries, even in the sheep for pilgrimage, and use of pesticides, etc. This is not unique to Muslims. I rely on both textual sources and empirical data.

Killing animals for food and using animal products has no guilt in Islamic sources. Abu `Ala is the only ethical vegetarian according to the texts I have explored. However, the exploitation of animals is restricted. We may use animals for hauling, but we may not overload them. Consumption of milk is allowed, but we cannot consume milk until the small animals have been satisfied, according to the Shafis. We can neither separate the animal from its young nor sell the wool before it is sheared lest it create a conflict of interest between the buyer and the animal. The Hanafi are least inclined to accommodate animal interests. They allow hunting beasts of prey even though their consumption is not permitted on the grounds we can use their hides, ivory, etc., but the others, esp. the Shafis disagree. Some Shafis, including Imam Shafi himself, say that if a sheep consumes a precious stone you cannot dissect it for the purpose of recovering the stone. All schools of law say that if the owner is unable to feed or treat an animal properly, it is their obligation to transfer ownership to someone who can. For some this responsibility is not just between the individual and Allah, but enforceable by society. The muhtasib (market inspector) could order a person to unload a camel while the person stopped for lunch. The protection of animal interests is part of the state’s responsibilities.

Compassion towards animals is consistently presented as a virtue. One companion is shown as feeding ants, not as an eccentricity, but as a virtue of compassion. Abu Bakr al-Shibli was told in a dream that Allah had forgiven him all his sins, not for his lifetime of Sufi devotion, but for saving a kitten on a bitter cold day.

Missionary and travel documents are a wealth of information about Muslim compassion towards animals. Muslims found such attitudes unremarkable, but the Western travelers thought otherwise. George Fowler says of the Turks they are particularly compassionate towards animals of all sorts, even forbidding the shooting of pigeons and that at the mosque there was someone in charge of feeding them. Fowler says “Mohammadans have a prejudice in dog’s favor. They will not kill a dog” expect on a complaint to the mayor of the town, which must be investigated. Even with animals they are allowed to kill, like lice, they are loath to kill them. They will even buy caged birds in the market just to free them so they may testify on their behalf in the afterlife. Edward Lane attributes the changes to the Franks, saying that he has only seen cruelty to animals in the places where the Franks had introduced the Muslim world to modernity.

People have attributed the disregard for animals to things like the “dominion” given to man in the Bible, but it must be conceded that such seeds found fertile ground in modernity. The natural world which used to be respected for its beauty is now valued for the resources it provides, and science sees nature as a subject to be controlled to overcome material scarcity, poverty, and illness. All systems, including Islam, are anthropocentric, but modernity is the most anthropocentric system ever.

Malik Shaikh was renowned for his hunting, but even he felt guilty enough about it to pay a dinar in charity for every animal he hunted. Some say the problem that the human being has been moved from part of nature to something that sits on top of nature. Dabba and hayawan (words for animals) used to include humans. (Dabba even included angels). Modern works on animals never include human beings as animals. This is important because this kinship was invoked as the grounds for consideration of animals. Ibn al-Qawba asked anyone mistreating a dog, “Do you not have animalhood in common?” Commentators criticized him for this. The Qur’anic word khalîfah has an interesting history. It means successor, but God does not go away. It takes on the notion of appointee. Until the 19th century the term was not applied to humanity but to the Prophets or to the “Khalifas.” Rashad Khalifah translates khalîfah to mean that humans are godlike, but this is what we have been warned against. Sayyid Qutb says this verse says to humans, go ahead and dismantle nature. Later Shafis adopted positions unacceptable to earlier ones like approving killing donkeys for their hide or to feed zoo animals.

Respondents.

Christopher Taylor, Boston University. I encourage everyone to read the full papers. I wondered why they were put together in the same panel and then felt ashamed when I realized why. I realize no development of fiqh will succeed without recognition of Allah as Ar-Rahman, ar-Rahim. The question of asking patients religious affiliation is the tip of an iceberg on debates over taking patients religious affiliations in to account in matters of abortion and treatment. Does the characterization in Western literature of the Other as closer to nature reflect their view of the Other as more savage? What of Iranian government policy of hiring sharpshooters to clear the streets of cats and dogs?

Mouez Khalfaoui, University of Tuebingen. I am inspired by these subjects. These challenges are not just for Muslims but for all cultures. We need interfaith research. Even within Islamic studies we need to open the focus beyond four (or five) schools and to open it to all the literature, not just religious literature and poetry. Rather than look in the literature to find the answer we want, we should look broadly and see where it takes us. Both of you seem subjective. I agree with you, but you need more distance. Are we dealing with ethics or with institutionalization or professionalization of work? You will be paid for this work. We are looking for a shift to an equilibrium between human beings and nature. This is about urbanization.

Tlilli. See Animals in Ottoman Egypt. I am not going to open the Qur’an and give you a solution. Philanthropy is insufficient. We need to re-instill a fear of God. I don’t think domination of nature is part of Islam. There is a sense of wonder in the pre-Islamic texts we don’t see any more. Urbanization is a by-product of modernity.

Abu-Shamsieh. The students are already doing the work without a manual. Do we train a Sunni chaplain to provide care for a Shia patient? Absolutely. It is a partnership across mudhâhib. It is not solution-oriented process. It has a hypothesis. I admit to my bias. Being paid for ibadât has been settled.

General Discussion.

Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad. Modernity’s claim to the notion of man as khalîfah flies in the face of the Qur’anic verses. Sometimes the answer is in the Qur’an. Dominion belongs to God, so the khalîfah  must mean something other than dominion. What is missing is the proper interpretation of the word in context. Most chaplains are not paid, unless by their home institutions, and most mosques in America don’t pay their imams. Kamal, what is the hypothesis you are testing? I did not hear you state it, I only heard a question.

[Name withheld]. The Qur’an says we created the entire earth for your service. As we learn about maqasid there is a shift in our philosophy, we seek causality or illa. The paradigm is moving away from the divine theory model towards something more like the Mu`tazila.

[Name withheld]. Hayawân as used in the Qur’an does not literally mean animal but life (including plants). One Turkish Sufi shaikh knowing his time was up invited all his students to choose a khalîfah. All but one came with beautiful bouquets of flowers, but one brought a wilted flower and was upbraided. The reprimanded disciple said, “I would have done as you have but the other flowers were all praising God and I did not want to interrupt their worship.” The Quran speaks of the animals as an ummah like us, but where does it refer to humans or angels as animals?

Abu Shamseh. My hypothesis is not part of my paper.

Tlilli. Khalafa means to follow, to substitute for. Paret says it preludes the presence of the party represented. Secondly it was understood as “heir of Allah” although they were not comfortable with this. This developed in the 19th century at the hands of Iqbal and others. It has not yielded a positive impact. I hope to write something in detail about this. Everything has hurma (sanctity). I think the notion of rights we have is the equivalent of hurma but without the theocentric element. As to humans as animals, see my article on this subject. When ibn Abbas sees the word dabba he says this means every animal including the human being or every animal except the human being.

[. Dabbat-al-ard does not mean animal.

Tlilli. Hayawân applies to all living creatures, but dabba implies locomotion.

[Name withheld]. Does anyone oppose the interpretation that dabba means any creature? Modern writers tend to oppose this understanding, but in some verses they are forced to admit the inclusion.

[Name withheld]. There has been an adaptation from all animals to those with four legs. We previously discussed rights as regards to work as a modern concept succeeding work as duty, changes in the meaning of zakat, and now rights of animals in a way that requires rethinking our notion of rights. I am interested in that shift, but surely we are not the first to discuss this. Where in the literature are shifts in the Islamic discourse on ethics from its encounter with modernity discussed?

[Name withheld]. Some have argued that pre-Islamic Arabs loved their dogs more than their families.

Tlilli. Pet-keeping is problematic. It is re-domination. I think it is one of the problems of modernity. I am not trying to present the tradition as innocent. Modernity is the work of a few thinkers and is reaching its dead-end, for example in environmental studies. We must rethink a whole host of things from medical studies to urbanization and not a case by case basis but a whole paradigm.

[Name withheld]. See Arabian Political Thought in the Great Century of Change, which destroys the view that the Ottomans ever saw themselves as khalifat-ullah.

[Name withheld]. There is no opposition between compensation and acting fî sabîl Allah (in the way of God).

[Name withheld]. The story of the donkey reminded me of removal of life support.  A girl is removed from life support after two days with the permission of parents who were not even present.

[Name withheld]. Even in modern anthropological studies, some call for a reconnection of human with the animal.

[Name withheld] I once heard a definition of khalîfah from a businessman who says it can never men khalîfat-allah because the angels’ question about the appointment of man as khalîfah implies he is successor to some previous generation.

Abu-Shamsieh. The discussion supports my point that chaplaincy is supported in Islamic ethics and law.

Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad, Ph.D.
Minaret of Freedom Institute
www.minaret.org

News and Analysis (7/13/15)

“[W]e now treat each refugee on the grounds of their race, religion or purpose of flight (“migration”). We do not treat them as human beings. And thus we betray all our religions and all our cultures”:

Chinese government is restricting minorities’ – mainly Tibetan and Muslim – ability leave the country:

“Their didactic spiels offer to Muslims one of two options: their allegedly enlightened brand of Islam or the flawed version of the masses”:

Although previous plans to build at the site were overturned because of the cemetary, Jerusalem municipality has now approved building plans:

Promoting the “Israeli officer accused of killing protesters to post of national police chief … tells other police officers that not only will it not harm your career to commit crimes against Arabs, but it can take you to the very top'”:

Three terrorist attacks in Iraq targeting mainly Shiite Muslims killed 35 on Sunday:

July 11, 2015

News and Analysis (7/11/15)

“[T]he new law has been criticised as a direct assault on freedom of speech and a move towards a police state” and “280 academics, lawyers and public figures claim the controversial law will make Britain less safe”:

“A split has sharpened in the Muslim Brotherhood. Some members are calling for violence against the state after Egyptian security forces killed nine people in the outlawed group” creating a “leadership vacuum”:

In the race to good deeds,  “a group of Muslim nonprofits … has raised more than $58,000 from over 1,300 donors” so far while a “broad coalition of … religious institutions has raised more than $150,000″:

Muslim women may now wear head scarves during photos, “be searched by female officers without men present,” and, if jailed, may wear hoods of tear resistant synthetic fiber so they can’t hang themselves:

“People think [temporary marriage] is tawdry, but it’s a piece of paper that allows you to live normally. We both suggested it at the same time – I don’t know who said it first, but we had both been thinking of it'”:

With major issues still unresolved in the negotiations …

… Iranian hardliners and moderates agree that should the talks fail, observers could not blame Iran, which Rouhani says has been patient and “logical,” but the U.S., which Khamenei says exemplified “global arrogance”:

“The U.N.-brokered pause in the fighting was meant to last a week to allow aid deliveries to the country’s 21 million people who have endured over three months of bombing and civil war”:

Perhaps some just wont forgive Vucic’s wartime pledge to kill a hundred Bosniaks for every dead Serb, while others thought his apology hollow after his Russian ally vetoed a UN move to call the atrocities genocide“:

“Geller told the Daily News she seeks an award of only $1,” but she’s not doing it for the $1 (or for the principle), but to open “the door to an award of attorney’s fees, which in this case will be north of $100K”:

July 9, 2015

News and Analysis (7/9/15)

“Andrew Harper, the UNHCR chief in Jordan, emphasized that countries involved had to figure out ways to keep the Syrian refugees productive[, saying,] “We do not want to warehouse the refugee population of four million”:

Thailand receives heavy criticism from UN and NGOs for sending back a group of Uighur Muslim refugees to China, where they risk prosecution for leaving the country illegally:

Russia vetoes the vote on calling the genocide in Srebrenica a genocide, calling it “not constructive, confrontational and politically motivated”:

An anti-radicalization movement is starting in UK; they want to “take the debate” and make sure there is a grass-root movement in addition to the questionable government initiatives …

… for “[b]y solely focusing on ‘Islamist ideology’ as a precursor to violent extremism … the British government will only create another generation of Muslim youth that will be further alienated and disenfranchised”:

After Snapchat posted a story from Tel Aviv, pressure from social media to show both sides of the conflict, and the wall, lead to today’s West Bank story:

July 8, 2015

News and Analysis (7/8/15)

The decision to let Robert Doggart, who threatened to conduct a terrorist attack against Muslims, out of custody highlights the different ways Muslims and non-Muslims are treated in the criminal justice system …

… and another man gets no jail time for threatening a Muslim man, even though he previously had stabbed a Muslim while yelling “I will kill you Muslim”:

When he “complained about the airing of a video on the radicalization of children during a training class that was supposed to teach troopers how to recognize weapons of mass destruction” he branded a budding terrorist:

The American Association for Public Opinion Research explains why Frank Gaffney’s “poll” smearing Muslims cannot represent its intended population, saying, “the pollster has no idea who is responding to the question”:

A Swedish politician “wants to ban halal meat in schools” before it turns the entire nation’s youth into Muslims:

US military’s goal to assist and train people in Syria and Iraq to fight ISIS will be more complicated and prolonged than the administration anticipated:

The fighting between Saudi Arabia and the Houthi hits civilians the hardest and leads to Al-Qaeda and Daesh advancing in the country …

… and many of the bombs and rockets used in the Saudi attacks on Yemen, called violations of International Law by Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, were bought from the US:

Whether or not one supports the SCOTUS’ gay marriage ruling (which should apply to polygamous marriages), one should understand Reza Aslan and Hassan Minhaj’s arguments for embracing the rights of despised minorities …

… case in point, the inebriates in York need to embrace the right of Muslims to abstain:

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